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How to make a decision to open fire

  • 05 April 2017 18:41:51
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The speed of making a decision to open fire must be combined with the possible accuracy of determining the initial settings. If, for example, when repelling an enemy attack, shooting from small arms from close ranges can be carried out simply by directional fire without the use of sighting devices, i.e. without any preparation of the initial data, then the fire for the same purpose from the depth of defense of our units must be well calculated , Otherwise it can be not only not very effective, but also dangerous for its units located in front.
In different shooting conditions for different purposes, training can be carried out with an uneven degree of accuracy. On this basis, the preparation of data is divided into a complete, shortened and an eye.
Full preparation and reduced data preparation are the main ones for firing artillery. They make it possible to calculate the initial installations for conducting fire with high accuracy, taking into account ballistic and meteorological deviations of the shooting conditions from tabular.
To conduct fire from small arms, the main method of preparation is the eye measurement, when the range to the target is determined by eye and corrections for changes in shooting conditions are not taken into account or taken into account approximately. The accuracy of such training is characterized by a mean error in determining the range Eg = 10% D.
In all cases of shooting training, it is necessary to use more accurate measuring techniques, if possible, to determine the distances - measure by steps, calculate the average value from several measurements, measure on the map, etc. Determination of distances, for example, by means of a map more accurate than the eye measurement: Error of measuring the range on the map Un = 5% E.

Since measurement by any method is inevitably accompanied by errors, it is almost impossible to prepare the initial data for firing without errors. If these errors are significant, and when shooting at the initial settings, the defeat of the goal is not achieved, then corrections are made in them, that is, firefighting is carried out. For small arms, this stage of shooting is called fire adjustment.
The firefighters have the task of directly shooting for the installation of sighting devices, suitable for conducting fire to defeat. The essence of the firefighting is that on the basis of the received observations of the place where the shells (bullets) fall, the position of the center of dispersion relative to the target is determined and the settings for shooting at the lesion are found; These settings are called targeted.
Sighting can be done in range and direction.
For small arms, the adjustment of fire by range can be accomplished by changing the position of the sight or by changing the aiming point in height. In the first case, having received, for example, deviation of the queue pulses from the target by 100 m, the installation of the sight for one division is changed in the corresponding direction. When the shooting conditions can not be measured, it is impossible to measure the amount of flight or underflights, the sight is changed by a value approximately corresponding to one median distance error. Adjustment of fire in range, carried out by changing the installation of the sight, is used mainly when firing from machine guns at ranges of more than 500 m.
The most simple for small arms is the way of adjusting the fire by changing the aiming point in height. This method, the most widely used, is based on the fact that changing the aiming point in height causes a corresponding change in the range of the bullets. Therefore, having received, for example, a flight queue, to reduce the range of fire it is enough to lower the aiming point. But since, first of all, it is impossible to determine the required value of the aiming point change in height during the shooting without errors, and secondly, it is impossible to accurately carry the aiming point along the height, especially for low targets, the success of applying this method of adjusting the fire in range Largely depends on the experience and skills of the shooter.

In all cases, this method is advisable to apply at a range of less than 500 m for vertical purposes.
Correction of fire in the direction for small arms is done by moving the aiming point along the lateral direction by the amount of the deviation obtained. For weapons that have a counter, the fire can be corrected in the direction by changing the installation of the pole. In the first case, the value of the removal of the aiming point is measured in the visible figures of the target, in the second case the target is changed by the angle of deviation of the center of the bullet scattering from the target in thousandths.
Correcting the fire in direction and range is usually carried out simultaneously.
Depending on the conditions of shooting and observation during the fire, it is possible to move from one method of adjusting the fire to another so that it is possible to quickly determine the most advantageous targets for target destruction.
Shooting to defeat pursues the task-in the necessary time to achieve the suppression, destruction or destruction of the goal.
The fire for suppression is conducted with the aim of depriving the enemy of combat capability for a certain period of time; The destruction of manpower and technology is achieved at the same time in passing.
The fire for the destruction of manpower, fire weapons and military equipment is conducted with the aim of depriving the enemy of combat effectiveness not only during the shelling, but also after a cease-fire, which is achieved by inflicting significant material damage on the enemy.
Fire to suppress or destroy can be used by all types of firearms. The consumption of ammunition in the conduct of fire for destruction is usually two to three times greater than when conducting fire on suppression.
The fire for destruction is conducted with the aim of destroying defensive structures, barrages and using artillery and tank guns.
One of the types of shooting to defeat may be a barrage used to prevent the enemy from overcoming or occupying a certain line, to hamper his maneuver, etc. Barrage lights are widely used by artillery: barrage on air targets is carried out from anti-aircraft weapons and small arms.
Any type of fire to defeat is usually monitored by monitoring the gaps and, if possible, corrected, i.e., in fact, during the shooting for the defeat, continue the adjustment.

Similarly, in the course of the fire, they seek to apply such an order and rules of conducting fire, at which the greatest probability of defeat of the target would be achieved. Thus, in fact, the fire and the fire may not be divided.
At a sufficiently high accuracy of the preparation of the initial data, the shooting at the defeat can begin without adjustment. At the same time, a complete surprise of a fire attack and the use of firearms in a given area of ​​combat operations can be achieved.
It is clear that at close distances, especially within the range of a direct shot, when shooting with ground fire, the defeat of the target can be achieved from the first turn, from the first shot, ie without any adjustment. For example, fire from small arms within ranges of 300-400 m in most cases leads to the defeat of the target at the initial settings without adjusting the fire. But for long distances, the errors in the preparation of the initial data affect the shooting already considerably, and sometimes very significant corrections must be made to the initial settings. Therefore, in all cases it is necessary to achieve greater accuracy of the initial data preparation in order to shorten the time for adjusting the fire and accelerate the defeat of the target.
In order to carry out the considered elements of shooting-training, shooting and shooting-for each particular case, the shooter must choose a method of training, shooting and shooting at which the fire task would be performed with the least expenditure of ammunition and time.
Extraordinary variety of goals on the battlefield and fire missions leads to the fact that each goal under specific conditions corresponds to some most advantageous method of shooting. Therefore, for each case, it is practically impossible to develop the most advantageous rules for preparing and conducting fire.
The rules of shooting are compiled as follows.
As a result of comprehensive studies of shooting at various targets in different conditions, all possible methods of preparing and conducting fire are revealed, which ensure the greatest reality of the shooting. Then, generalizations and simplifications of the methods are carried out which, without leading to a significant decrease in the validity of the shooting, make these methods convenient for use in combat conditions. The rules developed on the basis of theoretical research are widely tested in practice and are summarized in the form of recommendations for training shooting, shooting and shooting for damage. These generalized recommendations are called shooting rules.
In general, the following requirements are imposed on shooting rules:
1. The rules of shooting must ensure the reliability of shooting, i.e., provide the necessary probability of target destruction.
2. Rules of shooting should ensure the economy of shooting, i.e., to ensure the fulfillment of tasks with the least expenditure of ammunition and time.
3. Rules of shooting should be complete, ie, cover all the most typical shooting cases.
4. Rules of shooting should be simple and easy to remember.
Fire from small arms is conducted mainly at a range not exceeding 800-1000 m, on which the trajectories of bullets retain their flatness and change little under the influence of external shooting conditions. This ensures high fire efficiency, especially concentrated, and at ranges up to 400 m for assault rifles and up to 800 m for machine guns it provides for such purposes as a machine gun, running figure, shooting reliability close to 90%, with a consumption of 15-25 cartridges. Such a reality of the fire of modern automatic small arms, on the one hand, and the short duration of the appearance of live targets on the battlefield, on the other, require extremely simple rules of shooting, allowing in a few seconds to prepare data to open fire and introduce corrections during the shooting. The division of firing at the firing and shooting at the defeat for small arms does not make sense, since the error in the preparation of the initial data is largely compensated by the large values ​​of the space to be hit and the bullets scattered over the range, and the target's damage within the range of the actual fire is on average achieved by one or two bursts . Therefore, in the rules of shooting for small arms, it is customary to consider the rules for preparing the initial data and the rules for adjusting the fire.
The preparation of initial data for shooting from small arms includes the determination of the initial settings of the sight, the whole, the aiming point, taking into account the necessary corrections for the meteorological conditions of the shooting, mainly to the side wind, and also to the movement of the target. Moreover, amendments to shooting conditions are usually made without the use of firing tables, according to field (mnemonic) rules, which shooters should know by heart and be able to apply in practice.
The correction of fire includes the correction of the direction of shooting and the range according to the results of monitoring the routes or the places where the bullets fall (ricochets).

By their state, the goals for small arms are divided into fixed, emerging and moving.
Characteristic for small arms are living targets - calculations of weapons, groups of riflemen or individual figures that fire from different positions (lying down, from the knee and standing), etc.
All these goals in combat rarely remain immobile, so shooting on live targets often have to be considered shooting at the emerging targets, and appearing, as a rule, for a very short time - a few tens of seconds or less. Often these goals appear in different places, make dashes, crawl, transitions, ie, they are moving.
In addition to living targets, moving land targets for small arms are cars, motorcycles, armored personnel carriers and other mobile means.
For the generalization of shooting rules, the average size of the targets specified in the Manual on the Small Business "Basics of Small Arms Shooting" was adopted. The figure of a person, for example, is considered to be 0.5 m wide, 1.5 m high, 0.5 m long buried, 0.3 m entrenched, etc.
The speed of the targets is also taken as average: the speed of the running infantry is 3 m / sec, the speed of the cars is 8-10 m / sec.
The rules for shooting small arms are general recommendations; However, it must always be remembered that the application of the rules set forth in the relevant manuals does not exclude the use of other methods providing, in the given conditions, faster execution of tasks or an increase in the validity of the shooting.
Knowledge of the basics of shooting and a clear understanding of the rules recommended in the manuals make it possible in any conditions to find the most advantageous solution to the fire task.

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